Among the first agendas that Hitler worked on was revamping the German military. Although the Treaty of Versailles prohibited it, no countries ever imposed the prohibition. As the military might of Hitler became more powerful, so too did his ambition for further power and influence over Europe. Before World War I, starting in , Mussolini had been aggressively working to remove the government from power.
He established an assembly of young men known in history as The Blackshirts who backed his agendas and terrified everyone who opposed him. When arrived, he held complete authority over Italy as a dictator, referring to himself as Il Duce, which means The Leader in Italian.
Up to this day, historians the world over are uncertain of what his exact role was during the war. Nevertheless, photographs of Hirohito wearing military attire were circulated on mass during the period, and a lot of Japanese entered the war in his name. After the country was defeated, Hirohito rejected any involvement in the war and even survived in Japan's post-war revival.
He passed away in at the ripe old age of Although not all countries went into battle against the Nazi-led German forces at the very start of World War II, each one had a hand in the victory over the Axis. Before the war, he was frequently invited by Adolf Hitler as a visitor. Chamberlain rejected the prospect of waging another war and repeatedly made promises to the citizens of Britain regarding "peace in our time. Churchill argued with the intention of Chamberlain on turning a blind eye while the Germans invaded small nations in Europe.
The moment Great Britain realized he was correct, they voted him as Prime Minister of the country. During this period, Germany's military hold over Europe was already a threat to Britain. Just a couple of days following Churchill's nomination, Germany took over France. Similar to Chamberlain, Stalin thought that Hitler yearned for peace in Europe and the whole world in general.
He believed that Hitler shared his views and intentions when it came to achieving peace by reforming the government. During his signing of the Pact of Nonaggression, he thought he had made a close friend out of the new leader of Germany.
V Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the USA, was elected the most times in a row with four re-elections starting from and continuing to his passing in During the preliminary periods of World War II, Roosevelt promised the citizens of America that the lives of their sons would not be risked in a foreign conflict.
This stance garnered disapproval from the rest of the Allied countries, especially those from Europe who had no choice about being caught in the war. Japan's military pushed them up north. The moment Japan bombarded Pearl Harbor, the Americans collaborated with Chiang Kai-shek and his forces to fight them off.
I Navigating the Barbary Coast in North Africa, the Barbarossa Italian for "red beard" brothers Aruj and Hizir amassed massive wealth after they went on a pirating rampage, capturing European ships in the Mediterranean Sea.
Their most significant bounties included a pair of galleys from the Pope and a warship from Sardinia. Though they were already raking in the riches, the duo started hunting Spanish vessels during the period, leading to more difficult battles.
Aruj even sacrificed an arm during one particularly violent conflict with the Spaniards. Drake completed his first expedition in , returning in as the first British captain to have traveled around the world.
After returning from his voyage, Drake was knighted by Queen Elizabeth, and eight years later played a vital role in defeating the mighty Spanish Armada. Not long after his arrival in the Caribbean as an apprentice, L'Olonnais is believed to have started pillaging Spanish vessels and towns near the coast, making a name for himself because of his ruthless tactics.
IV Arguably the most popular buccaneer of his era, Henry Morgan commanded his crew to padlock the people of Puerto Principe, Cuba, within a church so he and his men could seamlessly loot the settlement. Later on, Morgan would seize Porto Bello of Panama, partly by using priests, women, and the mayor as human shields.
In the ensuing years, he would conduct vicious attacks on towns in Venezuela and Panama City. V Formerly an esteemed privateer, Captain William Kidd ventured the seas in with the task of pursuing and eliminating pirates in the Indian Ocean.
Eventually, however, Kidd became a pirate himself, taking ships like the Quedagh Merchant and even slaying one subordinate using a bucket made of wood. After falling victim to mutiny, he ended up with a minimal crew for the trip back home and was ultimately arrested and executed by the powerful British East Indies Company.
VI Blackbeard, whose real name was Edward Teach, struck fear into the hearts of his adversaries by winding burning fuses into his elongated, interlaced facial hair and carrying numerous guns and blades strapped to his chest. In November of , he took a slave ship bound for France, renamed it "Queen Anne's Revenge," and revamped it with 40 cannons.
With the new guns, Blackbeard would then blockade the port of Charleston in South Carolina, forcing the citizens of the settlement to cater to his demand of a massive chest of medicine. Following a brief period of rest in North Carolina, he was slain in battle against the English Navy. I Women were considered omens of misfortune on boats. However, this kind of superstitious belief certainly did not discourage those ladies eager to follow their pirating dreams.
More than one sailed the seven seas as pirates by masquerading as men. Mary Read and Anne Bonny were among the most famous pirates who worked alongside each other as men in the Caribbean. Their disguises were so good that each one believed the other to genuinely be a man! II It is quite a widely held mistaken belief that pirates wore eye patches to cover gaping eye sockets. In reality, the purpose of such strange eyewear was far more intriguing. Eye patches were worn to allow the other eye to become consistently adapted to darkness.
This gave the wearer an advantage for all combat carried out below deck. This method proved remarkably effective. So much so that it's still used by soldiers who need to spend extended periods of time in the dark. III Pirates were not entirely thugs. As a matter of fact, they were surprisingly just and reasonable with their crew members in terms of labor rights. A lot of captains followed systems wherein members of the ship would be given compensation for injuries they incurred while on duty.
The payment differed based on the extent of the injury. Just like how war veterans who lost their legs or arms are held in esteem today, pirates with severe injuries were highly regarded. IV While we've all heard stories of people being forced to walk the plank, it was actually an uncommon occurrence. That's not to say burglars and scallywags didn't have a terrible punishment awaiting them.
Keelhauling was a widely used sentence among pirates. To achieve this dreadful form of punishment, a long rope would be tied across and below the ships hull. The offender would then be tied to the rope and dragged below the boat and back up until the individual either died from drowning or was shredded to pieces by barnacles. V The truth is, pirates included people from all walks of life, not only brutes, criminals, and outlaws.
There is a renowned pirate in history named William Kidd who came from a wealthy family and was drawn to the pirate life while on a special task sanctioned by the government. His mission, funnily enough, was hunting pirates. Ultimately, Kidd was captured and hanged for piracy by the British East Indies company.
VI Pirates did indeed have a unique way of talking, though it was not at all like the way they are often portrayed in films. In reality, pirates came from all over the place, meaning they had a massive mish-mash of dialectical influences and no shared pirate accent.
The pirate voice we have grown familiar with can be linked to Disney's adaption of Treasure Island in , when actor Robert Newton performed as a pirate hailing from the west-country and seriously exaggerated the accent.
I When we talk about the birth of British control and influence throughout the world, it's all thanks mainly to the East India Company, which helped Britain achieve unbridled superpower status during its time. The East India Company allowed England to keep forging ahead, building itself into the greatest global empire the world has ever seen. During the s, Britain began creating colonies in North America and India which paved the way for the conquest of the Netherlands and France following the Anglo-Dutch war.
II The Empire of Great Britain went on to become known as the empire on which the sun never sets, and the instant Queen Victoria stepped into power in , the empire already ruled Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, along with sections of India, South America, and Africa.
The Empire of Britain served as a motivation for other countries, particularly Germany. The Germans were notorious for instigating wars within Europe.
This was in part because Germany yearned for an Empire similar to what England had built. In an interesting twist, the most recent countries to be added to the Games, Rwanda and Mozambique, never belonged to the Empire.
IV The Empire of Great Britain was deemed as being one of the most economically powerful empires of its time, although its fortune changed the moment Germany and America rose to prominence during the 20th century.
The War of Independence, in which the American colonies revolted and rejected British authority over their lands, struck a mighty blow to the power and wealth of the Empire.
V Many English soldiers who were working in the colonies during the American Revolution took their wives and children with them to the new world. Women worked as nurses, sutlers, or victuallers within the British army. If they didn't find a position in the military, they would take up whatever work was available, as they needed to take care of their families. Roughly a fourth of all the soldiers assigned to America brought their wives and children with them. Britain's status and esteem vanished once Japan took over its colonies in Asia and stayed unchanged, even following Japan's defeat at the hands of the allies.
India and Pakistan achieved independence shortly after, in The age of greatness for the Empire of Great Britain officially came to an end the moment it returned Hong Kong to China in I Christopher Colombus was the first European explorer to discover America, reaching it in While it was most commonly referred to as the "New World" in the early days, Columbus eventually named the continent after Amerigo Vespucci in America offered fresh new trade passages, control, influence, treasures, and wealth to some of Europe's most powerful nations.
There was a new frontier and whoever had control of America would secure even greater power, not just in the region but in the rest of the world. II The American colonies, created by various powerful nations in Europe, were short on the labor they needed to harness the riches of the newly explored lands.
Extremely profitable harvests like sugar, tobacco, and cotton paved the birth of slave labor systems within plantations. Economic development became linked to progressively expanding these plantations and establishing new ones, most of which were situated in the South. III The discovery of the New World was prompted by the birth of the Renaissance, a period in which the people of Europe were constantly searching for innovations, new trade routes, and the potential of spreading religion and culture to other parts of the world.
European nations were also planning on establishing Empires. The race to obtain territories in the New World was fiercely battled by several powerful countries in Europe, namely England, Spain, France, and the Netherlands. IV There were three main reasons why Spain ventured into America. First, was to convert its native inhabitants to the Roman Catholic religion. Next, was to take advantage of a cheap source of labor that they could exploit to extract precious resources and materials from the abundant lands.
And finally, it allowed Spain to grant property and settlements to aristocratic families who were vital to the growth of the Empire. V For the French, the conquest of the New World was all about obtaining riches via trade, particularly the profitable fur trade. France considered the Native Americans as valuable trading partners and formed alliances with them. The French put minimal effort into settling in the fertile American lands; they concentrated their expansion to Canada, which they referred to as New France.
VI England promoted building colonies in the New World. They were more interested in settling than establishing trade with its inhabitants, so put little effort into creating alliances with the Natives.
The British crown planned on asserting its control over the 13 colonies. However, the eventual absence of British imperial authority over America allowed its American colonists to build the grounds of a free and sovereign country which paved the way to the American Revolution to and the subsequent Declaration of Independence.
I The Empire of Spain was among the biggest Empires in history. The Empire of Spain totaled roughly II Spain's was the most powerful global empire throughout the s and s.
In particular, it had a stronghold over the world's trade landscape during this time. With many far-flung lands to its name, Spain was known as the empire on which the sun never sets because, with a territory so vast, there was always an aspect of its land in daylight.
The British Empire earned the same title. IV Columbus was the first explorer to discover America called the New World during those early years. With the patronages of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, Columbus completed four expeditions through the Atlantic Ocean. His exploratory missions and endeavors to create long-lasting settlements on the island of Hispaniola ignited the colonization of the New World by Spain.
V The Empire of Spain experienced its greatest prosperity during the s when it was at its peak. Trade in colonies held by Spain was flourishing, especially in the second half of the 18th century, under the Bourbon reforms. The Spanish Empire's victory in the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, fought in the Caribbean against a large military and naval force from Britain among other several fruitful encounters , aided the Empire in establishing control over America until the s.
VI The governance of Spain provided the Americas with a language that is prevalent in numerous parts of the world. Twenty distinct nations use Spanish as their official language, with estimates ranging from to million Spanish speakers worldwide. This means the language is more spoken than English, and is, in fact, second only to Mandarin.
I France was, for the majority of its existence, an Empire governed by a monarch. The first French ruler was alleged to be Merovech, a nobleman who lived during the 5th century. However, although there were periods in history where France ruled much of central Europe during the reign of Charlemagne, for instance , it didn't deem itself as an Empire until the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.
II During the s, joining in on the publicity created by the Spaniards following their discovery of America, France completed a small number of lukewarm efforts to begin establishing colonies in the New World. The first real colony was only established after Port Royal was constructed in the new territory of Acadia in , which would eventually be named Nova Scotia, Canada.
Kitts in , an island that the country was forced to share with Britain. Christophe, so France could capture Caribbean islands to develop tobacco plantations. The islands they took over include St. Dominque which they share with the Spaniards, an island nation that was eventually split and renamed Haiti and the Dominican Republic , Guadeloupe, and Martinique.
IV While the French collaborated with the indigenous inhabitants in the Northern regions of America, the tobacco and sugarcane plantations established in the Caribbean were mostly reliant on slave workers from Africa and the local populace. The extent of slavery was so great that there was a run of uprisings culminating in acts of ethnic cleansing.
The Carib Expulsion of is just one horrific example, almost entirely wiping out the populace of Martinique. V The Treaty of Utrecht, which had a massive impact on the colonies of France in America, was mainly designed to control the Spanish successions following the failure of King Charles II of the Habsburgs dynasty to elect a successor.
The treaty recognized the grandson of Louis XIV as the next king of Spain, although it got jumbled up in a number of colonies controlled by France. VI Following the French Revolution and the coup against the Ancient Regime, France did at first attempt to create balance, only for Napoleon Bonaparte to put an end to it during the rebellion of the 18th of Brumaire France followed a unique calendar during the time, the date was November 9, A three-person Consulate was created, with Napoleon being the First Consul.
Following the signing of the Peace of Amiens with the British in , he was voted Consul for life. I The Chernobyl Disaster was a nuclear catastrophe that took place between April 25 to 26, near the city of Pripyat in northern Ukraine.
According to the World Health Organization WHO , this disaster is responsible for the deaths of over 30, people and exposed 7 million more people to radiation. II A man named Valery Khodemchuk was the first person to die as a result of the disaster.
He was a night shift worker at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant operating the main circulating pump. He was killed instantly. His body was never recovered and is believed to be buried among the debris. III The newly-built city of Pripyat was the closest town to the site of the explosion. Following the disaster, the entire city was evacuated and completely cleared out within two days.
According to experts, it will take around 3, years before the city can be considered safe to live in again. IV The disaster also affected various species of plants and animals living in the area. Birds around the disaster zone have smaller brains than those in areas not affected by radiation, and trees grow much slower compared to other areas.
To this day, some animals still show dangerous levels of radiation. V Radioactive dust from the explosion made its way throughout northern and western Europe, and even as far as the east coast of the United States. Nuclear rain from the explosion also fell in large parts of Europe, reaching as far as Ireland. VI The Chernobyl disaster is considered the worst nuclear power accident in history, both in terms of cost and death toll. It is the first of two nuclear disasters classified by the International Nuclear Event Scale as a level 7 event.
The other one was the Fukushima disaster in I One of the deadliest and most destructive natural disasters in history took place on December 26, It was a magnitude 9. This was immediately followed by a large tsunami which hit several countries in Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Africa. II According to the U. Geological Survey, the disaster killed a total of , people, with many more reported injured or missing.
Indonesia was the worst-hit country, with a reported total of , deaths. This was followed by Sri Lanka with 35, deaths and India with 12, deaths. III The disaster also killed around 9, tourists from other countries who were spending their Christmas vacation at beach resorts in Southeast Asia.
Sweden lost a total of citizens, while Germany lost citizens. Other countries who lost the most citizens during this disaster include Finland, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and France. IV The tsunami also caused a major rail disaster in Sri Lanka. Train 50, which was carrying nearly 2, passengers, was on a scheduled trip between the cities of Colombo and Galle when the tsunami washed it away. This disaster claimed approximately 1, lives, making it the largest rail disaster in world history by death toll.
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