The largest fishes ; tunny-fry, young tunny, fuU-grown tunny ; tunny divided and pickled, salted tunny shces, chopped tunny ; amia-tunny, mackerel-tunny. The sword-fish. Mirabilia piscium pretia. Uv-Ux De margaritis quomodo nascantur et ubi ; quomodo inveniantur ; quae genera unionum ; quae observanda in iis ; quae natura eorimi ; exempla circa eos ; quando primum in usum venerint Romae.
Ix-lxv Muricum natura: depurpuris; quae nationes purpurae ; quomodo ex liis lanae tinguantur ; quando purpurae usus Romae, quando lati clavi et praetextae ; de conchyUatis vestibus ; de amethysto tinguendo ; de Tyrio, de hysgino, de cocco.
Ixvi De pina et pinotere. Ixviii f. Remarkable prices for fish. Different kinds popular in different places. Fish with voice, fish without gills ; fish that go ashore. Seasons for catching fish. Difference between turbot and sparrow-turbot.
Long fishes. The fish that shines by night. The horned fish. The Aveever. The so-called soft fishes. The cuttle-fish. The smaU scallops. Flying fish.
The sailor-fish. Varieties of sheU. Uii Quantity of deUcacies suppUed by the sea. Ix-lxv Nature of varieties of purple — the purple-fish ; kinds of purple-fish ; how used to supply dye for wooUens ; date of use of purple at Rome, date of purple stripe and purple-bordered robe ; purple dyed dresses ; dying amethyst ; Tyrian, vegetable-scarlet, kermes-scarlet. Ixvi The sea-pen and the sea-pen's guard.
Ixvii Perception of aquatic animals : the electric ray, sting-ray, scolopendrae, shad, ramming-fish. Ixx De caniculis. Ixxi De his quae silicea testa cluduntur ; quae sine sensu ullo in mari ; de reliquis sordium animalibus. Ixxii De venenatis marinis. Ixxiii De morbis piscium. Ixxiv-vii De generatione eorum : mira genera- tionum ; qui intra se et ova pariant et animal ; quorum in partu rumpatur venter, dein coeat ; qui volvas habeant ; qui ipsi se ineant.
Ixxviii Quae longissima vita pisciimi. Ixxix fF. Quis primus vivaria piscium instituerit. Ixxxiii Pisces terreni. Ixxxiv De muribus in Nilo. Ixxxv Quomodo capiantur anthiae pisces. Ixxxvl De stelUs marinis. Ixxxviii de inimicitiis inter se aquatiUum et amicitiis. Summa : res et historiae et observationes DCL.
Libro X. De struthocamelo, phoenice. Ixx Sea-bitches. Ixxi Flint-shell fish ; marine animals without senses ; other low species. Ixxii Venomous marine animals. Ixxiii Diseases of fishes. Ixxiv-vii Their reproduction — curious reproductive methods ; species both oviparous and viviparous ; deUvery by rupture of the stomach, afterwards closing up ; species possessing matrix ; self-fertiHzing species. Ixxviii Longest Ufe of fish. Ixxix-lxxxi First inventor of fish-ponds ; oysters ; who invented lamprey-ponds.
Notable fish-ponds ; who first in- vented snail-ponds. Ixxxiii Land fishes. Ixxxiv Mouse-fish in the Nile. Ixxxv Flower-fish, mode of catching. Ixxxvi Starfish. Ixxxvii Remarkable species of finger-fish. Ixxxvlii Instances of hostiUty and friendship between aquatic animals. Book X. Subject — the nature of birds. The ostrich, the phoenix. De columbis ; opera earum mirabiUa et pretia.
Differentiae volatus avium et incessus ; apodes sive cypseU. Ivi De pastu avium. Pigeons — remarkable structures of, and prices paid for; liv f. Varieties of birds' flight and walk ; footless martins or swifts. Goat- suckers, spoon-bill. Ivii Intefligence of birds; gold-finch, buU-bittern, yeUow wagtail. Ixi Diomediae. Ixii Quae animalia nihil discant. Ixiv Himantopodes. Ixv f. De pastu aviimi. Ixvii f. De pere- grinis avibus : Phalerides, Phasianae, Numidicae, phoenicopteri, attagenae, phalacrocoraces, pyrrho- coraceSjlagopodes.
Ixix De novis avibus : vipiones. Ixxi f. Quis gaUinas farcire instituerit,quique hoc primiconsules vetuerint ; quis primus aviaria instituerit ; de Aesopi patina. Ixxxi f. Quae volucrum sola animalia pariat et lacte nutriat. Ixxxiii-vii Terrestrium om- nium generatio ; quae sit animalium in uteris positio ; quormn animalium origo adhuc incerta sit ; de salamandris ; quae nascantur ex non genitis ; quae nata nihil gignant ; in quibus neuter sexus sit.
X : bibiones aut bubones. Ixi Diomede's birds. Ixii What animals learn nothing. Ixiii Birds, mode of drinking ; the sultana hen. Ixiv The long- legs. Food of birds. Foreign birds : coots, pheasants, Numidian fowl, flamingoes, heath-cock, bald crow or cormorant, red-beaked or Alpine crow, bare-footed crow or ptarmigan.
Ixix New species : small cranes. Ixx Fabulous birds. Ixxi Who invented fattening of chickens, and which consuls first prohibited? Aesop's stewpan. Ixxiii- Ixxx Reproduction of birds: oviparous creatures other than birds ; kinds and properties of eggs ; de- fective hatching and its cures ; Augusta's augury fromeggs; what sort of hens the best?
The only species of bird that is vivi- parous and suckles its young. Oviparous species of land animals. Reproduction of snakes. Ixxxiii- vii Reproduction of all land animals ; posture of animals in the uterus ; animal species whose mode of birth is still uncertain ; salamanders ; species not reproduced by generation ; species whose generated ofFspring is unfertile ; sexless species. Ixxxviii- xc Senses of animals: all have sense of touch, also taste ; species with exceptional sight, smell, hearing ; moles ; have oysters hearing?
De somno animalium ; quae somnient. Libro XI. Sleep of animals ; wliich species sleep? Book XL Subject — the kinds of insects.
De araneis qui ex iis texant ; quae materiae natura ad texendum ; generatio araneorum. De scorpionibus ; de stellionibus ; de cicadis sine ore esse et sine exitu cibi. Iviii- 58 BOOK I duction of bees ; their system of royalty ; swarming sometimes actually a good omen ; kinds of bees ; diseases of bees ; enemies of bees ; beekeeping ; replenishment of stock.
What animals reproduce from another species? Spiders — which varieties make webs ; material used in webs ; mode of repro- duction. Scorpions ; geckoes ; grass- hoppers — their lack of mouth and vent. Ixi-iv De dentibus : quae genera eorum ; quibus non utraque parte sint, quibus cavi ; de serpentium dentibus, de veneno earum ; cui volucri dentes ; mirabilia dentium ; aetas ruminantium ab his.
Ixv De lingua : quae sine ea ; de ranarum sono ; de palato. Ixvi-viii De tonsillis ; uva, epiglossis, arteriae, gula, cervix, collum, spina, guttur, fauces, stomachus. Ixix-lxxi De corde, sanguine, animo; quibus maxima corda, quibus minima, quibus bina; quando in extis adspici coepta.
Ixxii De pulmone : quibus maximus, quibus minimus, quibus nihil aliud quam pulmo intus ; quae causa velocitatis animalium. Ixxvii Praecordia ; risus natura.
Ixxviii De ventre ; quibus nullus; quae sola vomant. Ixxix Lactes, hillae, alvos, colon ; quare quaedam insatiabiha animalia. Ixxx-iii De omento, de splene ; quibus animaUum non sit ; de renibus ; ubi quaterni animahbus ; quibus nulU; pectus, costae, vesica ; quibus animaU- bus non sit; iUa; de membranis. Ixxxiv-viii Uterus : de locis, de volvis, de suum volva, sumine ; quae adipem, quae sebum habeant; de natura utriusque ; quae non pinguescant ; de medulUs ; quibus non sint ; de ossibus ; de spinis ; quibus nec ossa nec spinae ; cartilagines ; de nervis ; quae 60 BOOK I Iviii-lx Cheek-bones ; nostrils ; cheeks, lips, chin, jaws.
Ixi-iv Teeth — kinds of ; species with teeth in one jaw only ; with hollow teeth ; snakes' teeth, snakes' poison ; which bird has teeth ; remarkable facts as to teeth ; age of ruminants indicated by teeth. Ixv Tongue — tongueless species ; croaking of frogs ; palate. Ixvi-viii Tonsils ; uvula, epiglottis, wind- pipe, gullet, nape, neck, backbone, throat, jaws, stomach.
Ixix-lxxi Heart, blood, Ufe ; wliich species has largest heart, which smallest, which two hearts ; when inspection of heart of victims began ; Ixxii Lungs — which species has largest, which smallest, which no internal organ besides hmgs; cause of speed in animals.
Ixxvii Diaphragm ; nature of laughter. Ixxviii Stomach ; species that have none ; the only species that vomit. Ixxix Smaller intestines, entrails, stomach, great gut ; why some animals have voracious appetites. Ixxx-iii Caul, spleen — species without spleen.
Kidneys ; habitat of species with four kidneys — with none ; chest ; ribs ; bladder — animals without bladder ; entrails ; membranes. Ixxxiv-viii Belly — the ' parts,' the womb, sows' womb, paps ; what species have suet, what tallow ; nature of each ; what species have no fat ; marrow ; species that have none ; bones ; prickles ; species that have neither bones nor prickles ; cartilages ; sinews ; species without sinews.
Ixxxix-xcii Arteriae, venae ; quae nec venas nec arterias habeant ; de sanguine ; de sudore ; quorum celerrime sanguis spissetur, quorum non coeat; quibus crassissimus, quibus tenuissimus, quibus nullus, quibus certis temporibus anni nullus ; an in sanguine principatus. De tergore ; de pilis et vestitu tergoris ; quibus os intus et pedes subtus hirti. De anima ; de victu ; quae veneno pasta ipsa non pereant et gustata necent. Varrone, Hygino, Scrofa, Saserna, Celso Cornelio, AemiHo Macro, Vergiho, Columella, lulio Aquila qui de Etrusca disciplina scripsit, Tarquitio qui item, Umbricio Meliore qui 62 BOOK I xcii Arleries, veins ; species with neither veins nor arteries ; blood ; sweat ; species whose blood thickens most quickly, whose blood does not coagu- late ; wliich species has the thickest blood, the thinnest, none at all, none at certain seasons of the year ; whether blood is dominant factor in body.
Back ; hair and integument of back ; species having hair inside mouth and under feet. Total : facts, investigations and obstrvations. Libro XII. Arbores Arianae gentis, item Gedrosiae, item Hyrcaniae, item Bactriae ; bdelHum sive brochum sive malacham sive maldacum ; scor- dasti.
Persidis arbores : Persici maris insularum arbores ; gossypinum arbor. Book XH. Contents : trees — their various quahties.
Modes of adulteration, tests and prices specified for all scents or spices. Trees of Persia ; trees of islands in Persian Gulf; cotton-tree. Pisone, Tuditano, Antiate. Total : facts, investigations and observatious. Contents: On foreign trees. Total facts, investigations and observations. Libro XIV. Book XIV. Contents : fruit-trees.
De vasis vinariis, de aceto, de faece, de cellis. De ebrietate ; ex aqua et frugibus vini vim fieri. Summa : res et historiae et observationes DX. Varrone, D. Libro XV. Wine- jars, vinegar, lees, cellars.
Intoxication ; drinks made from water and fruit can be as potent as wine. Total : facts, investigations and observa- tions. Contents: Fruit-bearing trees, their various natures. Laurus : genera eius XIII. Summa : res et historiae et observationes DXX. Externis: Hesiodo, Theophrasto, Aristotele, Democrito, Hierone rege, Philometore rege, Attalo rege, Archyta, Xenophonte, Amphilocho Athenaeo, AnaxipoU Thasio 74 BOOK I valuable properties ; nature of the olive and olive- oil when forming ; 15 kinds of oHves ; nature of oHve-oil ; cultivation of olive-trees ; storing of ohves ; manufacture of ohve-oil ; 48 kinds of artificial ohve- oil ; the kiki-tree or croto or sih or sesamum castor- oiltree ; ohve-lees.
The bay-tree, 13 kinds. Total : facts, researches and observations. Gentes sine arbore ; miracula in septen- trionaU regione arborum. Arborum natura per situs : quae montanae, quae campestres, quae siccaneae, quae aquaticae, quae communes.
Book XVI. Contents : forest trees, their various natures. Races that have no trees ; remarkable trees in the North. Nature of trees classified by habitat : those that grow on momitains, on plains, on dry soils, in water, in several habitats. Ivii f. Arbores quae sponte resurrexerint ; quibus modis sponte nascantur arbores. Ixii f. De hedera : genera eius XX. Ixiv-lxxi De aquaticis : de calamis ; harundinum genera XXVIII ; de sagittaris et scriptoris et fistula- toris calamis ; Opchomenia harundine et aucupatoria et piscatoria ; de vinitoria harundine ; de alno ; de salice, genera eius VII ; quae praeter saUcem ad ligandum utilia ; de scirpis, candehs, cannis, tegulo; de sabucis, de rubis.
De arborum sucis. Ixxiv-vii De natura materiarmn ; de arboribus caedendis ; de magnitudine arborum ; de sapino ; 78 BOOK I fcrees wliose foliage clianges colour : poplars, 3 kinds ; foliage that clianges shape of leaf ; foliage tliat yearly turns round ; palm-leaves, cultivation and use of; remarkable foliage. Instances of trees rising again of their own accord ; spontaneous generation of trees, modes of. Ixii Ivy, its 20 kinds. Ixiii Bindweed. Ixiv-lxxi Water plants : canes ; reeds, 28 kinds ; reed arrows, reed pens, reed pipes ; the bird-catcher's and fisherman's reed of Orchomenus ; the vine-prop reed; the alder; the willow, its 7 kinds ; other plants useful for ties ; bulrushes, rushhghts, canes, thatch ; elders, brambles.
Sap of trees. Ixxiv-vii Nature of timbers ; wood- cutting ; sizes of trees ; the pine ; charcoal. Ixxviii-lxxxi Quae eariem non sentiant, quae rimam ; historica de perpetuitate materiarum ; teredinum genera ; de materiis archi- tectonica.
Ixxxii-iv De materiis fabrilia ; de glu- tinanda materia ; de lamnis sectilibus. Ixxxv-xc Arbonmi durantium vetustas : ab Africano priore sata ; in urbe Roma D annorum arbor ; ab urbe condita arbores ; vetustiores urbe in suburbanis ; ab Agamemnone satae arbores ; a primo anno belli Troiani arbores ; ab Ih appellatione arbores apud Troiam antiquiores bello Troiano ; item Argis ; ab Hercule satae ; ab Apolline satae : arbor antiquior quam Athenae ; quae genera arborum minimtie durent.
Libro XVII. Ixxxii-iv Wooden tools ; gluing timber ; sawn sheets of wood. Book XVII. Contents: the natures of cultivated trees. Vinearum ratio et arbusto- rum ; ne uvae ab animalibus infestentur. Morbi arborum ; prodigia ex arboribiis.
Ex auctoribus : Cornelio Nepote, Catone censorio, M. Epidio, L. Externis : Hesiodo, Theophrasto, Aristotele, Demo- crito, Theopompo, Hierone rege, Philometore rege, Attalo rege, Archyta, Xenophonte, Amphilocho Atheniense, Anaxipoh Thasio, Apollodoro Lemnio, Aristophane Milesio, Antigono Cumaeo, Agathocle 82 BOOK I that never degenerate ; kinds springing from settings, from a cutting, from a layer; seed-beds, transference of seed-beds ; growing elms from seed ; trenching ; distances between trees ; shade ; droppings from leaves ; slow-growing and quick- growing kinds ; kinds springing from layers.
Arrangenient of vineyards and plantations ; prevention of injury to vines from animals. Diseases of trees ; remarkable products from trees. Libro XVm. De avena ; morbi frugum, remedia. H-Hii De summa fertiH- tate soH ; ratio saepius anno serendi idem arvum ; stercoratio. Contents : crops, their natures. Oats ; corn diseases, remedies. Ixii- Ixxiv Quid quoque mense in agro fieri oporteat : de papavere; de faeno, causae sterilitatum ; remedia; de messibus, de frumento servando, de vindemia et autumni operibus.
Ixxv f. Lunaris ratio ; ventorum ratio. Ixxvii Limitatio agrorum. Ixxviii-xc Pro- gnostica : a sole, a luna, stellis, tonitribus, nubibus, ignibus terrestribus, aquis ; ab ipsis tempestatibus ; ab animalibus aquatilibus, avolucribus, a quadrupedibus. Summa: res et historiae et observationes MMLX. Silano, M.
Ixii- Ixxiv Agricultural operations proper to the several months ; poppies ; hay ; causes of various kinds of infertility ; remedies ; harvests, storage of corn, vintage and autunm operations. Conditions of the moon, of the winds. Ixxvii Fixing of bounds of estates. Ixxviii-xc Weather-forecasts : from the sun, moon, stars, thunder-clouds, mists, earth-fires, waters ; from the seasons themselves ; from aquatic animals, from birds, from quadrupeds.
Ivi Ferulacea genera iv ; can- nabis. Ivii-lix Morbi hortensiorum; remedia: quibus modis formicae necentur; contra urucas remedia, contra cuUces; quibus salsae aquae prosint. Ix Ratio rigandi hortos. Ixi-ii De sucis et saporibus horten- siorum ; de piperitide et Ubanotide et zmyrnio.
Ex auctoribus : Maccio Plauto, M. Book XIX. Contents : i-vi Flax, nature and remarkable properties of ; 27 specially good kinds of ; how grown and how made up ; earliest employment of awnings in the theatre. Ix JVIethod of watering gardens. Ixi f. Juices and flavours of garden plants ; pepperwort, rosemary, mint. Libro XX.
Book XX. Subject : medicines obtained from garden plants : ii from the wood-cucumber 26, iii wild cucumber 27 ; iv snake cucumber or wild cucumber 5, v garden cucumber 9, vi pumpkin 11, vii gourd or somphus 1, viii colocynth 10, ix turnips 9, x vidld turnip 1, xi navews or swede of two varieties 5, xii f.
Varrone, Pompeio Lenaeo, C. Libro XXI. Orpheus, Menander's Things service- ahlefor life, Pythagoras, Nicander. Book XXI. Contents : the natures of flowers and of flowers for garlands. Rose, 12 kinds, 32 drugs ; lily, 3 kinds, 23 drugs ; plant from an exudation ; narcissus, 3 kinds, 16 drugs. Time-series of birth of flowers ; garland anemone or phrenion xciv-ix 10 drugs ; wine-flower grass 6 drugs ; cultivated fennel 11 drugs , marigold 11 drugs , gladiohxs, hyacinth 8 drugs , lychnis 7 drugs , narcissus, pothos, 2 kinds, crocus, 2 kinds, periwinkle or dwarf laurel xl, 4 drugs ; evergreen grass.
He was almost afraid that second slate Mackenzie Flight Leader might fall into the wrong hands and so he expended a large amount of energy to make sure we all knew which Lee was keen. But he got the bars anyhow. The keenness held on long enough for him to get his three back on the Honour Slate.
Bob plays all sports well but hockey the Lest. He is a top skier, a "gun nut," and an aficionado of Stuff's infamous Hunters' expeditions. Although he has so far returned unbloodied, we are sure he could survive in the bush - wild apples, strawberries, roots, etc. Bob is a body-driver and a mental giant; he will go a long way towards making the Army a recognized service.
Royal Roads has changed Gerry more than he will ever change this institution. Coming from a small Saskatchewan town, Gerry didn't find his first girl until the Chrislmas leave of his second year. Known as a 'keen' cadet he has received letters addressed to Keen Cadet Flight Leader Meier and proud of it, he protected his shining toes by threatening to 'boot' any aggressor who tried to dull his glow. Gerry was a big help to LaSalle Flight in sports, especially in water polo where his extracurricular classes from last year came to the fore.
He helped in track and basketball; he was one of the better cross-country runners and had a good eye for those long set shots. In the second term, Jack headed the CASI group and the senior gunroom crowd ; he even found time to manage the " prima donna" soccer team. When not in sick bay searching through medical hooks for symptoms, he did put up a strong show for LaSalle in their interflight schedules. In the first slate as CSA and statistician for 3 SQn, he kept everyone who wished informed of the progress of the squadron's " globe trotters.
Since he led such an active life, his flight mates will forgive him for being so hard to get up at Wakie Wakie. Indeed, Jack has seen many novel reveillies at RR. We hope Jack won't find Kingston too cold. If Grant was hali as popular and active in his home town Regina as he is at Roads, his fortune must have been assured; however, luckily for R. Grant is in his second year as scrum-hali of the 1st rugger team; he seems to be a natural at aU sports he attempts.
I have said that Grant is an athlete, but, not one at the neglect of his studies. His Christmas marks would indicate his equal aptitudes in choosing the correct formula and the correct play. I am sure that R. Kent was one of the many who made the long trip from Ontario to Royal Roads in September, He settled right into the system and his carefree attitude resulted in one of the familiar sounds in Vancouver Flight's hall being " You think its a big yuk, don 't you, Scott.
In , PK was on the 2nd Eleven. This year he made both the First Eleven and the hockey team. He's good in all sports and hence is a great asset to his flight in aU inter-flight competition.
However, it seems the Training Command has ideas about contact traininK- Consequently, Kent will be one of the very, very few who will apply for posting to Centralia. Of course this isn't complete devotion to duty; the proximity of Grand Bend and of a certain cottage owner's daughter playa small part in his preference of postings.
We all wish Kent success in the years to come and particularly in his posting this summer. Nick, from the time he joined the College, has been one of the stalwarts of Fra ser Flight. In his first year he was well known for his fine sense of humour, keenness, and devotion to the Navy. His big sport was " Cross-country" in which he excelled although he has been plagued by a poor ankle. Nick started on his way up in his second year by earning the position of Flight Leader for the first slate.
His marks rose, as did his bars. He became SQuadron Leader for the second slate and had to leave 1 Squadron for his appointment. With his devotion to duty and his magnetic personality, Nick will go far in the services. He will be leaving behind him, as expected, many friends when he leaves for R. Jim is an easterner, from Glace Bay, Cape Breton. So far east, in fact, that he still believes that Canada ends at the Isthmus of Chignecto.
Jim is One of the stalwart sons of General Science. Jim is a sportsman, and represents the college on the hockey team of which he is captain. He also plays squash in his spare time, and the "bowling bus " seldom leaves without him either.
We wish him good luck in aU his enterprises. Known by his term-mates as Hez Ed," flbitter Ed," and numerous other nick-names Ed is an integral part of the Cartier flight association. Ed arrived here from the Lakehead in the fall of '63 and has, ever since, made dozens of friends Uust ask him. Ed showed better-tha,:,-average ability on the squash court as well as in the swimming pool and, consequently, won hunself a poslllon on the water polo team for RM. He is also a bowling addict and skillfully organized the league.
No doubt it was his keen drill and bearing which earned him position of CSC second slate. Fortunately he didn't let power go to his head. WIthout doubt he WIll make a good officer and we wIsh him the best of luck. Gary, perhaps more commonly known as Gar' or just "Prime," is Cartier Flight's wiz. Unlike most intelligentsia, Prime has better use for his time than studying, such as living up to a reputation as the "Flight Prank," playing the piano, or listening to the same "Beach Boys'" Album over and over again.
He is not the most enthusiastic sports fan but occasionally he visits the pool or squash courts to inspect them I suppose. Music is his main field along with Maths and Physics. He excels on the piano and of late on the one and only glockenspiel in the band. His other activities include curhng and weekend card games with the Cartier "A" group behind the closed doors of Cabin To be sure, if there is a prank to be pulled, on one's flight-mates of course, Gar is sure to have pulled it and he gets away with it too.
Maybe he will help liven up the next two years at R M. Good luck Gary and how about letting the rest of us m on some of your tricks before you pull them on us. The answer is 'Big Ann," the pride and joy of Cartier Flight.
He's not sure if he came here from Flin Flon Man. Gary can be found most of the time in front of the TV set, exploding coke bottles and burning weeds. He still fmds a little time to study to keep abreast of his Chemical Engineering course.
He shows ability in most sports; his favourite are rifle shooting and girling. Shooting a '99' won him the co vetted Silver Spoon in a tournament here at Roads in January ' He also skipped a rink during our curling season. Gary is one of the persecuted eighteen who will admit how much he actually enjoyed summer training and he is bound to make a very capable army officer. Best of luck, Gary. One of this year's original fourteen artsmen, Barry Comes from Ottawa.
He made it quite clear in his fIrst year that the Maths and Sciences were not for him. He is one of the more successful arts men placing high amongst them. Lalonde's daughter. I0's or down at the mess decks prachsing his judo. Barry originally applied for the RCAF, but he was forced to accept the Navy and spent a very enjoyable summer at Long Beach and various other places. We all wish Barry the best of luck m his future career at sea. Gord, more commonly referred to as "Gn" has for the purposes of this expose been dubbed "The Comox-Kid" for reasons known so well to those who clare venture near the hallowed precincts of RCAF Stn Com ox.
Gord is a well-travelled character. He was born here in Victoria actually Sidney , lived in Comox for a number of years, then in Vancouver, now he calls Greenwood, N. His true home this year appears to have become flBarb's" or the Hpit," with a few side excursions to Comox and Vancouver. Good luck Gord and remember those runways you land on should be your own.
Pux" is another of the Cartier Flight boys gone wrong. All summer he could be found in some officers mess because he had the foresight to go to Contact Training in the Air Force. He assures me that mixed tobogganing on the Malahat is also excellent exercise.
Thursday rain is without a doubt hiS pet peeve. Socially, Pux excells in all forms of endeavour from bowling to after-parties. His dance style is envied and often copied, but none can match the master. In the drive-in also Pux is well known for his astute powers of observation. To the wing Pux is best known as " Mr.
Instant Wing Boots. His chubbiness soon left him during recruit term - so much so that his parents did not recognize him at Christmas.
Skip is manager of the basketball team and with all its trips away on weekends a certain little lady, Marion, gets a little perturbed because of his absence. But his home weekends are quite full , at parties, Marion's house, drive-ins He lives there.
Best luck at R. AI "Beaver" Bevington was one of the few who liked the system enough to repeat. A real help to all juniors last year, AI proved his worth with C.
A in 1st slate. Academics are his real weakness and seem to be the only thing holding him back. Al is one of Starf's sharp-shooters, being a real help to the rifle team. Al was another one of the famed engineers who hit the ranks of General Science at Xmas. Well liked by all and a true all round driver, all we can say is the best of luck" AI ". In the Fall of Tony came up out of the salt mines to come to Royal Roads.
Not liking the bright light on the surface he became a prime promoter of " the pit. I guess he found something to hold his interest - comme les femmes peut etre? In his contest for second place in the leave card competition with Rick and Wilf, Tony manages to hold his own but sometimes forgets that we also nave academics to put up with. An avid squash player and budding golf enthusiast Tony can always be counted on to do his part for fligh t sports.
If he doesn't fall asleep at the throttle Tony plans to finish pilot training after RMC. Best of luck Tony. One of the more devoted and best known cadets, Andy ,Joe originally came from Sydney God's city and as he repeated his first year, he gave our term a much needed and appreciated helping hand. Well noted for his athletic achievements, Andy was twice the college welterweight boxing champIOn and twice the recipient of the Michael Philips Memorial Trophy.
Andy avidly supported numerous college activities holding responsible positions on both the Log and Ro a dent in his two final years at Roads.
He is looking forward to his final phase in Sigs tralfllng thiS summer and then to a pleasure trip to Europe HA! Fraser Flight's import, known as the flight "water-baby," tried out for the college rep. Gerry was a second slate C. Each morning during the exam period the flight was awakened with those unforgettable words "all right you guys rise and shine," played on his gigantic electrical noise system. Many hours have been spent in forming his famous musical library.
Jerry was active in flight sports and is a hard hitting driver in both rugger and soccer. After an average first year, he made a complete change in his second and is sure to achieve success at C. A mechanical engineer to the core, his undying love is cars, and any conversation in his cabin eventually settles down to what would happen when a Volkswagen and Chevrolet were interbred.
A speed fiend, he set up a sports car fund and then decided that a motor bike would be a wiser investment. No conformist John is probably the first to arrive at a fonnal dance in a panel truck. It is an odds on proposition that at Grad he will appear with scarlets, pill box, cape and date on a Honda.
While his independent nature has driven his seniors to hysteria, his good nature and willingness to help out has endeared him to his friends. Both will probably need it. Since he has lived in B. Bill has many interests. He is an ardent skier water and snow. He is a radio fan and a capable one if anyone has a radio to be repaired. He has been a mainstay of the rugger team where his 6'3" make him a standout. Bill is an engineer and has hopes of remaining so, for his career in the illustrious RCN.
Between reading science fiction or modern authors such as Steinbeck and O'Hara, or tinkering with his radio, or designing new cars, or pounding a letter home on his typewriter, or playing on his new bugle, or playing golf, "Flash" may, just may, be found studying - in a prone position on his bed, of course. Pat would be more active, however, if only someone had shown an interest in fencing besides himself. He has established and o rganized the chess club into a ladder tournament and is a participating member of the C.
From his lofty perch atop the chess ladder, "Flash" looks down uRon the hard working plebs, smiles, and goes back to his perusal of futuristic car bodies. His neg" work has managed to keep him in the top Think what would happen if he worked!!! The electronic wizard of Champlain Flight, Lew can usually be found tearing transformers out of fluorescent lamps to see what makes them buzz, or hooking into someone else's antenna.
Lew balls from Brandon, as IS witnessed by his monthly bundle of local rags, but is sad that he won't be returning to that Ontario fun spot Centralia, where he took a telecommunications course last summer.
A fme competitor and sportsman in all sports and a drive-the-mind fiend in academics, Lew will succeed In whatever he attempts to do. Jim is known as one of the "yukkers" of the wing and particularly as one of the "yuks" from Champlain Flight.
For two years he has played on the rep. He exhibIts the same drive In flight sports as he does on the soccer pitch and has shown he is no slouch physically. Jim is one quarter of last year's Champlain Flight who managed to survive the transfer between Mackenzie and Champlain. He is a hard and conscientious worker when it comes to academics.
Late at night his light can be seen burning as he pores over materiai he had to digest in order to complete his year successfully. Best of luck in this and future battles, Jim. Doug had what it takes.
With one look you could tell. He was a rugger animal. Both years he played on the fast, hard-hitting first XV. In all sports he was out to give his most. Fraser flight could be sure of its games when "Dougger" was playing. As soon as he came out here, Doug found a sweet girl in town by the name of Lynne. His social life picked up momentum and he could seldom be found around the college on weekends. Doug's favourite occupation is horizontal vectors.
The Army is getting a good engineer, for Doug is tops on a transit. He can be found 'bopping off" angles all over the place. With a wave of both hands and a big grin he tells how the traverse is progressing, n tAce' man," he says. This year Karl managed to keep himself interested and busy with numerous activities other than the usual academic burden.
He directed the R. He served, too, as Champlain Flight gunroom rep. However, his major interest is none of these. It lives not too far away and can be visited quite regularly. At Kingston, Karl will be near his old stamping ground, Montreal. Quiet but an asset, best sums up Reg, for he can always be depended on in flight sports and other activities.
What was that about naillng someone's favourite window shut'? During all this time he manoeuvered out of major trouble. This can be partly attributed to the fact that he could never be found around the college on the weekends. During the week days he was continuously trying to reach a happ'y medium between the pit and study. He dolefully admits, however, he has found no solution. We understand he is looking forward to it with great enthusiasm.
Jim comes to us straight from what he pleases to call "The City," situated back in Canada. After a somewhat less than energetic first year he entered the second with but two aims, to form a pistol club and to enjoy himself. He also has more than a passing interest in medieval architecture which led him one day around Christmas time to investigate a large pile of structural drawings of casUes. What should he find under these but some old, dusty, and unused volumes, called Text Books.
Since then he has been digesting them. He maintains the undisputed corner on model car mags, as well as proprietorship of "Cadet Wing Skin Stores. Jim wants to do research work for the Navy; we wish him every success.
In first year Ernie was in Champlain Flight and some of his extracurricular activities included fencing and judo. This year because he has his brown belt he has taken to instructing cadets in this fine art of self defense.
I'd enjoy them all if I could only see. Incidentally, he was runner up in his division for the Pacific North-West. After a hard academic struggle first year, Ernie is now one of the intellectual artsmen.
We have no fears of attack with this Army type around. Actually, after a hard summer last year, Ernie came through, and hopes for a better summer this year in the Ordinance Corps. Jim, who hails from Agincourt, is one of the few cadets in the wing who has remained faithful to his girl back home. He played on the 2nd XV last year and started out playing on the 1st XV this year.
Due to the fact that he seems to be accident prone he has stopped playing and is now manager of the Rugger Team. He joined the College bowling league and smce he doesn't like to be second he is doing his best to be tops in bowling and doing a good job at it. This year Jim, who was one of the few members left in Champlain Flight last year, has graced MacKenzie Flight with his presence. He was a C. We know Jim will be successful in whatever branch of the Navy he enters on Graduation.
One of the "persecuted 18, " Bob spent last summer inspecting mud and dirt at close range on his belly as a Camp Borden Commando. Undaunted by this trying experience, he is dead set on becoming an officer in the RCE's. Meanwhile, Bob works hard at sports and academics and can be seen every Thursday carrying transits, chains, pencils, plumb-bobs, and tapes: in short, he is a Civil Engmeer.
Bob should do well at R. Better known to the troops as T. Although aggressive on the sports field, he finds his forte on the Rep Leave Team. Even though a small town boy, the thriving metropolis of Victoria disturbed him not and he managed to make a name for himself - the "Mover" chairs, tables, lamps, rugs - you name it!
As one of the older lads of the wing his calm, unassuming manner led to the respect he d,," serves. However, his patience was tried quite often after fmding himself surrounded by Air Force idlers. Yet a true Army type, he's planning to go Signals and in this, and everything he attempts, we wish him the best of luck. In sports E. An outstanding member of the "21 Club" from his junior year, he remains undaunted; skylark attempts are still far from scarce on his agenda.
Well liked among both terms, he is looked up to by the juniors for his keen and just attitude and by the seniors for his casual manner which has earned him the title "The Swinger. Someday he hopes to become a jet jockey, but until that time he is content to suffer the grueling life in A T. With his drive, sense of humour, and " luck?
Pit monster, pitter, pit artist, horizontal component - no matter how you spell it or how you say it, it all means Jake. IT you ever had to fmd him there was only one place to look - the horrible bottomless I? Academically outstanding, Jake returned to the College, after "a summer in the rain with a hole in his pancho" at Camp Borden, as a First Slate Cadet Section Commander. Jake excelled in basketball and, as well as helping Champlain Flight to a nrst in soccer, he played on the Rep Team.
His favounte saying: - "Oh, guys get me up at After that he hung on to his one perm a-bar, and was kind enough to consent to a few days of COO, although band CSC's are not supposed to take duty.
Tom's out-of-college activities were noticeably duninished after Xmas. This, he claims, is because of a certain important interest and worry he left behind in his native city. Tom frankly admits that the mess dinners attract him more than anything else in the Navy, and those who know him well enough won't find this hard to believe.
Wiih this attitude Tom should go a long way with the RCN. Under a hail of coins and with true Mackenzie Flight spirit, it was Duty Bugler "Cal" who stepped out onto the circle. He looked around, the crowds hushed, everyone sat stiffly. Yes, this farm boy knew how to play!
A year has passed, but now a newer sound is heard with every hall resounding "Andd'ust what do you think you're doing, you funny little man you. Well - he only prefers to play five ends against the middle, for as he says, if "keeps them fit.
On the sports field Cal is a real driver, a lways in the thick of the battle, lending a hand. We wish Cal the best of luck in the future in his chosen career. Most every weekday evening between the hours of , if you listen closely at Lloyd's door, you will invariably hear only the gentle sounds of the pit. From then on, however, Lloyd is usually making with the integrals and matricies. On weekends its much the same, except that is taking an advanced course in chinese architecture virtually every leave hour of the weekend.
With someone named Terry around to give the lessons, who can blame him. An avid Gen. Horning into admitting one of Lloyd's off beat chern theories. Because of his good marks and remarkable keenness, Lloyd took over the helm of Hudson flight in the second slate when others were forced to step down in favour of more intellectual pastimes.
Being the easy going type that he is, Lloyd is bound to succeed in his career as a Naval officer. Flaming red hair, brawny shoulders, and a latent quality of delicacy and daintiness, have earned for Jim the title of the senior term "rugger animal.
Ideal ski weekends fascinate Jim, as do most other activities that don't involve chemistry or physics. Jim had the dubious honour of being the first of the engineers to join the ranks of Gen. ScL In spite of his obvious deficiency of not having failed Christmas exams nrst, the rest of that select group, known as the "Charter Gen Sci's," decided to accept him, but only under the demanding condition that he stay awake in classes. So in an obvious effort to accept his delegated authority, Jim nods wisely to all questions aimed at the class.
Dave is a former student of Victoria University who saw Royal Roads, probably on a skylark, liked what he saw and signed up. Born and raised in the trading post of Bella Coola Canada's last frontier,. His U-Vic background came in handy in first year when some of his term-mates found themselves without a date just before a dance. Whenever he wasn't playing the role of Cupid, he played rugger. This year he has lost his animalistic tendencies and bowls. Dave, who did very well academically in his junior year, has really come into his own as an Electrical Engineer.
One of the greatest supporters of Hudson Flight parties, he can also be counted on for the solution of a frustrating calculus problem. Dave's immediate hopes are that this year Mr. Hellyer will see fit to send him back to Hawaii and that the Northbound camping trip will be to Bella Coola. Gary Lajeunesse, or "Laj" as he is commonly referred to by his fellow Artsmen, comes to Royal Roads from "acrost da river" in Hull.
As one of the proud defenders of French-Canadian nationalism, Laj can be heard arguing with Chant the virtues of the master race. C I had," he says, " a picture of Saint Ignatius with our Lord bearing the cross, and another of Our Lady of Pity surrounded by the five wounds of her Son.
They were my joy and my consolation; but I hid them in a bush, lest the Indians should laugh at them. On one occasion he asked these celestial friends for something to soothe his thirst, and for a bowl of broth to revive his strength. Scarcely had he framed the petition when an Indian gave 1 Relation, , Weary and forlorn, he reached at last the lower Mohawk town, where, after being stripped, and, with his companion, forced to run the gauntlet, he was placed on a scaffold of bark, surrounded by a crowd of grinning and mocking savages.
As it began to rain, they took him into one of their lodges, and amused themselves by making him dance, sing, and perform various fantastic tricks for their amusement. He seems to have done his best to please them; "but," adds the chronicler, " I will say in passing, that as he did not succeed to their liking in these buffooneries singeries , they would have put him to death, if a young Huron prisoner had not offered himself to sing, dance, and make wry faces in place of the father, who had never learned the trade.
After this preliminary, they would have burned him, like Franchetot, his unfortunate companion, had not a squaw happily adopted him in place, as he says, of a deceased brother.
He was installed at once in the lodge of his new relatives, where, bereft of every rag of Christian clothing, and attired in leggins, moccasins, and a greasy shirt, the astonished.
But his deliverance was at hand. A special agreement providing for it had formed a part of the treaty concluded at Quebec; and he now learned that he was to be restored to his countrymen. After a march of almost intolerable hardship, he saw himself once more among Christians; Heaven, as he modestly thinks, having found him unworthy of martyrdom.
At last," he writes, we reached Montreal on the 21st of October, the nine weeks of my captivity being accomplished, in honor of Saint Michael and all the holy angels. On the 6th of November the Iroquois who conducted me made their presents to confirm the peace; and thus, on a Sunday evening, eighty-and-one days after my capture, - that is to say, nine times nine days, - this great business of the peace was happily concluded, the holy angels showing by this number nine, which is specially dedicated to them, the part they bore in this holy work.
Peace was made; but would peace endure? There was little chance of it, and this for several reasons. First, the native fickleness of the Iroquois, who, astute and politic to a surprising degree, were in certain respects, like all savages, mere grown-up children. Next, their total want of control over their fierce and capricious young warriors, any one of whom could break the peace with im1 Poncet in Relation, , On Poncet's captivity, see also Morale Pratique des Jesuites, vol.
I have already told the story of the destruction of this people and of the Jesuit missions established among them. The Mohawks and the Onondagas were competitors for the prize. Each coveted the Huron colony, and each was jealous lest his rival should pounce upon it first. When the Mohawks brought home Poncet, they covertly gave wampum-belts to the Huron chiefs, and invited them to remove to their villages.
It was the wolf's invitation to the lamb. The Hurons, aghast with terror, went secretly to the Jesuits, and told them that demons had whispered in their ears an invitation to destruction.
So helpless were both the Hurons and their French supporters, that they saw no recourse but dissimulation. The Hurons promised to go, and only sought excuses to gain time.
The Onondagas had a deeper plan. Their towns were already full of Huron captives, former converts of the Jesuits, cherishing their memory and constantly repeating their praises. Hence their 1 Jesuits in North America. Other motives, as we shall see, tended to the same end, and the Onondaga deputies begged, or rather demanded, that a colony of Frenchmen should be sent among them. Was not this, like the Mohawk invitation to'the Hurons, an invitation to butchery?
On the other hand, to refuse would probably kindle the war afresh. The Jesuits had long nursed a project bold to temerity. Their great Huron mission was ruined; but might not another be built up among the authors of this ruin, and the Iroquois themselves, tamed by the power of the Faith, be annexed to the kingdoms of Heaven and of France? Thus would peace be restored to Canada, a barrier of fire opposed to the Dutch and English heretics, and the power of the Jesuits vastly increased.
Yet the time was hardly ripe for such an attempt. Before thrusting a head into the tiger's jaws, it would be well to try the effect of thrusting in a hand. They resolved to compromise with the danger, and before risking a colony at Onondaga to send thither an envoy who could soothe the Indians, confirm them in pacific designs, and pave the way for more decisive steps.
The choice fell on Father Simon Le Moyne. The errand was mainly a political one; and this sagacious and able priest, versed in Indian languages and customs, was well suited to do it.
Scarcely was he gone when a band of Mohawks, under a redoubtable half-breed known as the Flemish Bastard, arrived at Quebec; and, when they heard that the envoy was to go to the Onondagas without visiting their tribe, they took the imagined slight in high dudgeon, displaying such jealousy and ire that a letter was sent after Le Moyne, directing him to proceed to the Mohawk towns before his return. But he was already beyond reach, and the angry Mohawks were left to digest their wrath.
Nature, or habit, had taught him to love the wilderness life. He and his companions had struggled all day against the surges of La Chine, and were bivouacked at evening by the Lake of St. Louis, when a cloud of mosquitoes fell upon them, followed by a shower of warm rain. The father, stretched under a tree, seems clearly to have enjoyed himself.
Now they glided smoothly over the sunny bosom of the calm and smiling river, and now strained every nerve to fight their slow way against the rapids, dragging their canoe upward in the shallow water by the shore, as one leads an unwilling horse by the bridle, or shouldering it and bearing it through the forest to the smoother current above.
Game abounded; and they saw great herds of elk quietly defiling between the water and the woods, with little heed of men, who in that perilous region found employment enough in hunting one another.
At the entrance of Lake Ontario they met a party of Iroquois fishermen, who proved friendly, and guided them on their way. Ascending the Onondaga, they neared their destination; and now all misgivings as to their reception at the Iroquois capital were dispelled. The inhabitants came to meet them, bringing roasting ears of the young maize and bread made of its pulp, than which they knew no luxury more exquisite.
Their faces beamed welcome. Le Moyne was astonished. I I never," he says, " saw the like among Indians before. They hoped for great advantages from the residence of Frenchmen among them; and, having the Erie war on their hands, they wished for peace with Canada. I never had so many relations. Such influence as they had with their conquerors was sure to be exerted in behalf of the French.
Deputies of the Senecas, Cayugas, and Oneidas at length arrived, and, on the 10th of August, the criers passed through the town, summoning all to hear the words of Onontio.
The naked dignitaries, sitting, squatting, or lying at full length, thronged the smoky hall of council. The father knelt and prayed in a loud voice, invoking the aid of Heaven, cursing the demons who are spirits of discord, and calling on the tutelar angels of the country to open the ears of his listeners. Then he opened his packet of presents and began his speech. They were delighted; and their ejaculations of approval- hoh-hoh-hoh - came thick and fast at every pause of his harangue.
Especially were they pleased with the eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh presents, whereby the reverend speaker gave to the four upper nations of the league four hatchets to strike their new enemies,. However it may have suited the character of a Christian priest to hound on these savage hordes to a war of extermination which they had themselves provoked, it is certain that, as a politician, Le Moyne did wisely; since in the war with the Eries lay the best hope of peace for the French.
The reply of the Indian orator was friendly to overflowing. He prayed his French brethren to choose a spot on the lake of Onondaga, where they might dwell in the country of the Iroquois, as they dwelt already in their hearts. Le Moyne promised, and made two presents to confirm the pledge. Then, his mission fulfilled, he set out on his return, attended by a troop of Indians. As he approached the lake, his escort showed him a large spring of water, possessed, as they told him, by a bad spirit.
Le Moyne tasted it, then boiled a little of it, and produced a quantity of excellent salt. He had discovered the famous salt-springs of Onondaga. Fishing and hunting, the party pursued their way till, at noon of the 7th of September, Le Moyne reached Montreal.
Le Moyne, accompanied by two Onondagas and several Hurons and Algonquins, was returning to Montreal, when he and his companions were set upon by a war-party 1 Journal du Pere Le Mloine, lRelation, , chaps. The Hurons and Algonquins were killed. One of the Onondagas shared their fate, and the other, with Le Moyne himself, was seized and bound fast. The captive Onondaga, however, was so loud in his threats and denunciations, that the Mohawks released both him and the Jesuit.
The quarrel was patched up, but fresh provocations were imminent. The Mohawks took no part in the Erie war, and hence their hands were free to fight the French and the tribes allied with them. Reckless of their promises, they began a series of butcheries, fell upon the French at Isle aux Oies, killed a lay brother of the Jesuits at Sillery, and attacked Montreal. Here, being roughly handled, they camne for a time to their senses, and offered terms, promising to spare the French, but ceclaring that they would still wage war against the Hurons and Algonquins.
These were allies whom the French were pledged to protect; but so helpless was the colony, that the insolent and humiliating proffer was accepted, and another peace ensued, as hollow as the last. The indefatigable Le Moyne was sent to the Mohawk towns to confirm it, " so far," says the chronicle, " as it is possible to confirm a peace made by infidels backed by heretics. A warrior, feigning madness, raved through the town with uplifted hatchet, howling for his blood; but the saints watched over him and balked the machinations of hell.
He came off alive and returned to Montreal, spent with famine and fatigue. Meanwhile a deputation of eighteen Onondaga chiefs arrived at Quebec.
There was a grand council. The Onondagas demanded a colony of Frenchmen to dwell among them. Lauson, the governor, dared neither to consent nor to refuse. A middle course was chosen, and two Jesuits, Chaumonot and Dablon, were sent, like Le Moyne, partly to gain time, partly to reconnoitre, and partly to confirm the Onondagas in such good intentions as they might entertain. Chaumonot was a veteran of the Huron mission, who, miraculously as he himself supposed, had acquired a great fluency in the Huron tongue, which is closely allied to that of the Iroquois.
Dablon, a new-comer, spoke, as yet, no Indian. Their voyage'up the St. Lawrence was enlivened by an extraordinary bear-hunt, and by the antics of one of their Indian attendants, who, having dreamed that he had swallowed a frog, roused the whole camp by the gymnastics with which he tried to rid himself of the intruder.
On approaching Onondaga, they were met by a chief who sang a song of welcome, a part of which he seasoned with touches of humor, apostrophizing the fish in the river Onondaga, naming each sort, great or small, and calling on them in turn to come into the nets. Hereupon there was much laughter among the Indian auditors.
An unwonted cleanliness reigned in the town; the streets had been cleared of refuse, and the arched roofs of the long houses of bark were covered with red-skinned children staring at the entry of the " black robes. The dignitaries of the tribe met them on the way, and greeted them with a speech of welcome. A feast of bear's meat awaited them; but, unhappily, it was Friday, and the fathers were forced to abstain. His colleague, Chaumonot, a Frenchman bred in Italy, now rose, with a long belt of wampum in his hand, and proceeded to make so effective a display of his rhetorical gifts that the Indians were lost in admiration, and their orators put to the blush by his improvements on their own metaphors.
The council opened with a song or chant, 2. The burden of the fifth part was as follows:"Farewell war; farewell tomahawk; we have been fools till now; henceforth we will be brothers; yes, we will be brothers. It was a belt of seven thousand beads of wampum. What had wrought this sudden change of heart?
The eagerness of the Onondagas that the French should settle among them, had, no doubt, a large share in it. For the rest, the two Jesuits saw abundant signs of the fierce, uncertain nature of those with whom they were dealing. Erie prisoners were brought in and tortured before their eyes, one of them being a young stoic of about ten years, who endured his fate without a single outcry. Huron women and children, taken in war and adopted by their captors, were killed on the slightest provocation, and sometimes from mere caprice.
One point was clear; the French must make a settlement at Onondaga, and that speedily, or, despite their professions of brotherhood, the Onondagas would make war. Their attitude became menacing; from urgency they passed to threats; and the two priests felt that the critical posture of affairs must at once be reported at Quebec. But here a difficulty arose. It was the beaver-hunting season; and, eager as were the Indians for a French colony, not one of them would offer to conduct the Jesuits to Quebec in order to fetch one.
It was not until nine masses had been said to Saint John the Baptist, that a number of Indians consented to forego their hunting, and escort Father Dablon home.
It was the 2d of March when Dablon began his journey. His constitution must have been of iron, or he would have succumbed to the appalling hardships of the way. It was neither winter nor spring. The lakes and streams were not yet open, but the half-thawed ice gave way beneath the foot.
One of the Indians fell through and was drowned. Swamp and forest were clogged with sodden snow, 1 See Jesuits in North America, Chaumonot, in his Autobiography, ascribes the miracle to the intercession of the deceased Brebeuf. Happily, the St. Lawrence was open. They found an old wooden canoe by the shore, embarked, and reached Montreal after a journey of four weeks.
Dablon descended to Quebec. There was long and anxious counsel in the chambers of Fort St. The Jesuits had information that, if the demands of the Onondagas were rejected, they would join the Mohawks to destroy Canada. But why were they so eager for a colony of Frenchmen? Did they want them as hostages, that they might attack the Hurons and Algonquins without risk of French interference; or would they massacre them, and then, like tigers mad with the taste of blood, turn upon the helpless settlements of the St.
An abyss yawned on either hand. Lauson, the governor, was in an agony of indecision, but at length declared for the lesser and remoter peril, and gave his voice for the colony. The Jesuits were of the same mind, though it was they, and not he, who must bear the brunt of danger. The expense fell on the Jesuits, and the outfit is said to have cost them seven thousand livres, - a heavy sum for Canada at that day.
A pious gentleman, Zachary Du Puys, major of the fort of Quebec, joined the expedition w'th ten soldiers; and between. Four Jesuits, Le Mercier, the superior, with Dablon, Menard, and Fremin, besides two lay brothers of the order, formed, as it were, the pivot of the enterprise. The governor made them the grant of a hundred square leagues of land in the heart of the Iroquois country, - a preposterous act, which, had the Iroquois known it, would have rekindled the war; but Lauson had a mania for land-grants, and was himself the proprietor of vast domains which he could have occupied only at the cost of his scalp.
Embarked in two large boats and followed by twelve canoes filled with Hurons, Onondagas, and a few Senecas lately arrived, they set out on the 17th of May to attack the demons," as Le Mercier writes, "in their very stronghold. They passed the bare steeps of Cape Diamond and the mission-house nestled beneath the heights of Sillery, and vanished from the anxious eyes that watched the last gleam of their receding oars.
When they heard of the departure of the colonists for Onondaga, their rage was unbounded; for not only were they full of jealousy towards their Onondaga confederates, but they had hitherto derived great profit from the 1 Marie de 1'Incarnation, Lettres, Le Mercier, Relation, , chap. These supplies would now be furnished by the French, and the Mohawk speculators saw their occupation gone. Nevertheless, they had just made peace with the French, and, for the moment, were not quite in the mood to break it.
To wreak their spite, they took a middle course, crouched in ambush among the bushes at Point St. Croix, ten or twelve leagues above Quebec, allowed the boats bearing the French to pass unmolested, and fired a volley at the canoes in the rear, filled with Onondagas, Senecas, and Hurons.
Then they fell upon them with a yell, and, after wounding a lay brother of the Jesuits who was among them, flogged and bound such of the Indians as they could seize. The astonished Onondagas protested and threatened; whereupon the Mohawks feigned great surprise, declared that they had mistaken them for Hurons, called them brothers, and suffered the whole party to escape without further injury.
They were tolerably successful, killed six, and captured more than eighty, the rest taking refuge in their fort, where the Mohawks dared not attack them. At noon, the French on the rock of Quebec saw forty canoes approaching from the island of Orleans, and defiling, with insolent parade, in front of the town, all crowded with the Mohawks and their prisoners, among whom were a great number of Huron girls.
Their captors, as they passed, forced them to sing and dance. The Hurons were the allies, or rather the wards of the French, who were in every way pledged to protect them. Yet the cannon of Fort St. Louis were silent, and the crowd stood gaping in bewilderment and fright.
Had an attack been made, nothing but a complete success and the capture of many prisoners to serve as hostages could have prevented the enraged Mohawks from taking their revenge on the Onondaga colonists. The emergency demanded a prompt and clear-sighted soldier. The governor, Lauson, was a gray-haired civilian, who, however enterprising as a speculator in wild lands, was in no way matched to the desperate crisis of the hour. Some of the Mohawks landed above and below the town, and plundered the houses from which the scared inhabitants had fled.
Not a soldier stirred and not a gun was fired. The French, bullied by a horde of naked savages, became an object of contempt to their own allies. The Mohawks carried their prisoners home,. At Montreal they exchanged their heavy boats for canoes, and resumed their journey with a flotilla of twenty of these sylvan vessels.
A few days after, the Indians of the party had the satisfaction of pillaging a small band of Mohawk hunters, in vicarious reprisal for their own wrongs. On the 26th of June, as they neared Lake Ontario, they heard a loud and lamentable voice from the edge of the forest; whereupon, having beaten their drum to show that they were Frenchmen, they beheld a spectral figure, lean and covered with scars, which proved to be a pious Huron, one Joachim Ondakout, captured by the Mohawks in their descent on the island of Orleans, five or six weeks before.
They had carried him to their village and begun to torture him; after which they tied him fast and lay down to sleep, thinking to resume their pleasure on the morrow. His cuts and burns being only on the surface, he had the good fortune to free himself from his bonds, and, naked as he was, to escape to the woods. He held his course northwestward, through regions even now a wilderness, gathered wild strawberries to sustain life, and, in fifteen days, reached the St.
Lawrence, nearly dead with exhaustion. The Frenchmen gave him food and a canoe, and the living skeleton paddled with a light heart for Quebec. The colonists themselves soon began to suffer 1 See authorities just cited, and Perrot, Moeurs des Salvages, Their fishing failed on Lake Ontario, and they were forced to content themselves with cranberries of the last year, gathered in the meadows.
Of their Indians, all but five deserted them. The Father Superior fell ill, and when they reached the mouth of the Oswego many of the starving Frenchmen had completely lost heart.
Weary and faint, they dragged their canoes up the rapids, when suddenly they were cheered by the sight of a stranger canoe swiftly descending the current.
The Onondagas, aware of their approach, had sent it to meet them, laden with Indian corn and fresh salmon. Two more canoes followed, freighted like. It lay before them in the July sun, a glittering mirror, framed in forest verdure. They knew that Chaumonot with a crowd of Indians was awaiting them at a spot on the margin of the water, which he and Dablon had chosen as the site of their settlement.
Landing on the strand, they fired, to give notice of their approach, five small cannon which they had brought in their canoes. Waves, woods, and hills resounded with the thunder of their miniature artillery. Then reembarking, they advanced in order, four canoes abreast, towards the destined spot.
In front floated their banner of white silk, embroidered in large letters with the name of Jesus. Here were Du Puys and his soldiers, with the picturesque uniforms and quaint weapons of their time; Le Mercier and his Jesuits in robes of black; hunters and.
As they neared the place where a spring bubbling from the hillside is still known as the "Jesuits' Well," they saw the edge of the forest dark with the muster of savages whose yells of welcome answered the salvo of their guns. Happily for them, a flood of summer rain saved them from the harangues of the Onondaga orators, and forced white men and red alike to seek such shelter as they could find.
Their hosts, with hospitable intent, would fain have sung and danced all night; but the Frenchmen pleaded fatigue, and the courteous savages, squatting around their tents, chanted in monotonous tones to lull them to sleep. In the morning they woke refreshed, sang Te Deuzm, reared an altar, and, with a solemn mass, took possession of the country in the name of Jesus.
The first was the vast flight of wild pigeons which in spring darkened the air around the Lake of Onondaga; the second was the salt springs of Salina; the third was the rattlesnakes, which Le Mercier describes with excellent precision, adding that, as he learns from the Indians, their tails are good for toothache and their flesh for fever.
These reptiles, for reasons best known to themselves, haunted the neighborhood of the salt-springs, but did not intrude their presence into the abode of the French. They followed the Indian trail, under the leafy arches of the woods, by hill and hollow, still swamp and gurgling brook, till through the opening foliage they saw the Iroquois capital, compassed with cornfields and girt with its rugged palisade. As the Jesuits, like black spectres, issued from the shadows of the forest, followed by the plumed soldiers with shouldered arquebuses, the red-skinned population swarmed out like bees, and they defiled to the town through gazing and admiring throngs.
All conspired to welcome them. Feast followed feast throughout the afternoon, till, what with harangues and songs, bear's meat, beaver-tails, and venison, beans, corn, and grease, they were wellnigh killed with kindness. Some Mohawks were in the town, and their orator was insolent and sarcastic; but the ready tongue of Chaumonot turned the laugh against him and put him to shame.
Here burned the council fire of the Iroquois, and at this very time the deputies of the five tribes were assembling. The session opened on the 24th. Lettre du P. Ragueneau au R. Provincial, 31 Aout, In the great council house, on the earthen floor and the broad platforms beneath the smokebegrimed concave of the bark roof, stood, sat, or squatted, the wisdom and valor of the confederacy; Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas; sachems, counsellors, orators, warriors fresh from Erie victories; tall, stalwart figures, limbed like Grecian statues.
The pressing business of the council over, it was Chaumonot's turn to speak. The twenty-one adults in the experiment learned Brocanto2, a thirteen-word language created for the study. The words and grammar rules relate to a computer game similar to chess that the learners played. For example, "Blom neimo lu neep li praz" means "The square blom-piece switches with the neep-piece.
The study found that those who had learned it with the immersion method had brain waves similar to those of native speakers of a language when speaking that language. Professor Ullman says those who trained with the classroom method also became more native-like in their brain processing.
But only the immersion group showed full native-like processing of the grammar. Still, he says teachers should be careful how they use the results of his study. Nevertheless, it is suggestive, and I think it warrants further research to see whether in fact what kind of training might in fact be best not just for reaching the native brain bases but also for, you know, maximum proficiency in different aspects of language, like grammar, you know, syntax and lexicon.
So I think further research is warranted. And it may be, for example, that a combination of classroom and immersion might be best.The former is the modern literary language which is descended from and still very similar to Classical Tibetan, and is typified, for the author, by a particular Tibetan translation of the Christian New testament. The latter is the modern colloquial language as spoken around Lhasa.2/5(1).
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